(Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman

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Martin Goodman å 0 free download free download ↠ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook å Martin Goodman review Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations 100 Ritory They were taxed simply for being Jewish They were forbidden to worship their god They were wholly reviledWhat brought about this conflict between the Romans and the subjects they had previously treated with tolerance Martin Goodman eually renowned in Jewish and in Roman studies examines this conflict its causes and its conseuences with unprecedented authority and thoroughness He delineates the incompatibility between the cultural political and relig. This book is about the run up to and the aftermath of the Great Jewish Revolt of 66 73 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem It explores the tensions and hostilities that led to the war between the Jewish state and the Roman Empire and examines the similarities and differences between the two sides It also tries to explain why the Roman reaction to the Jewish Revolt was so much harsher than other similar rebellions against the Roman Empire and how it led to the rise in antisemitism through the Roman Empire and subseuently the Roman Catholic Chuch and mediaeval Europe It s a very good book very thorough and insightful and very well written I d highly recommend it

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Martin Goodman å 0 free download free download ↠ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook å Martin Goodman review Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations 100 Ious beliefs and practices of the two peoples He explains how Rome’s interests were served by a policy of brutality against the Jews He makes clear how the original Christians first distanced themselves from their origins and then became increasingly hostile toward Jews as Christian influence spread within the empire The book thus also offers an exceptional account of the origins of anti Semitism the history of which reverberates stillAn indispensable bo. This is ostensibly an in depth look at the context in which and causes of the rebellion of the Jews against Rome occurred around 70 AD resulting in the destruction of Herod s temple The opener sets up the circumstances detailing the rebellion itself Goodman however wonders why the rebellion occurred when other cultural entities taken over by the Roman Empire did not have similar rebellions and when the Jews in many ways were so well integrated into the systemHe begins by describing the two cities in the first century Rome was a cultural and political hegemon Jerusalem was a religious one Both were international cities taking in people from around the empire though for their varying purposesNext Goodman turns to what living in the Roman Empire was like He starts by looking in part at how Herod Agrippa came to power via in fighting among the Jews who essentially invited the Romans to take over to settle disputes Agrippa was appointed as king eventually being a Jewish convertoutsider of sorts but also a friend of a certain Roman politician in power Although criticized in the New Testament he was known for his piety among the Jewish peoples Maintaining power was a political game one that often had to do with who was in favor or in charge in RomeGoodman then turns to a discussion of diversity in the empire and as he does so he rather loses sight of Jerusalem focusing on various other parts of the empire in part to help establish how Rome interacted with its various vassals Of note in this section is how Rome had a certain love for the exotic Writings often focused on the strange Our views of the empire largely come from Roman or Greek writers however Greece remained the cultural hegemon throughout the eastern empire and Rome adopted many of its customs as its own One would get the impression that the subject peoples never wrote but Goodman shows how such peoples did likely write of their own places Most such writings did not survive however in cases where they did there was usually some reason or advantage for its presentation such as that of an early Spanish writer The Jewish people in this way were uniue since so much of their writings were preservedNext comes a discussion of citizenship Being Roman initially meant being of the city then of Italy But citizenship came to have and expansive meanings One could buy it or be born into a mixed marriage or even be freed as a slave and then granted it What it meant to be Roman slowly became watered down until the third century when all peoples in the empire would declared citizens Whether people thought of themselves as Romans or as Gauls or whatever subject peoples they were depended on the person Paul was born Roman for example but one would hardly see him as typical for he was a Jew first Meanwhile some Greek writers of the time were thoroughly of the empire serving in the Senate though they were not of Roman heritage To be Jewish carried similar uandaries since one could convert to Judaism meaning that ethnicity was only part of the Jewish identity religion also played its part If one were of mixed marriage one was likely a Jew if one s father was Jewish or later one s mother The shift from patrilineal to matrineal heritage happened between the third century BCE and the third century CEDiffering concepts of time and history also come up Rome had little sense of deep time it did not know much about its origins and had to make up parts of its early history But recent history was well documented For the Jewish people it was just the opposite The Bible goes back to the origin of humanity and the early history of the Jewish people their judges and kings was written out in full But coming into the first century history fairly well dropped off after Ezra There was a lot less written about the Jewish people in the intertestamental era Romans were heavily concerned about preserving parts of themselves for posterity making some kind of monument to themselves in terms of their deeds and what they left behind Jewish people were less interested in this their faith focusing instead on God and on doing well for him That said Herod s building of the temple certainly was an attempt by him to maintain his name and reputation into posterityKinship ideas among the two peoples had similarities and differences as well The father was largely the head of the household for both The Jewish people historically had maintained extended families but by this time the focus was on the nuclear family as in Roman society And yet in Roman society this focus was complex The paterfamilia maintained in many respects control over the family to multiple generations You could be a son or grandson married and out on one s own but you were still legally under the paterfamilia s jurisdiction What mitigated this was that fact that lifespans were typically shorter fortysomethingDivorce was fairly common in both societies Roman marriages were essentially living together arrangements and rarely lasted a lifetime Stepfamilies were the norm both because of divorce and the shorter lifespans The Jewish peoples had contractual marriage but a man could fairly easily divorce his wife not so easily the wife her husband as under the law she technically could notFriendship among Romans was generally a tit for tat sort of thing If one did someone a favor then one was a friend One generally did not do favors for nonfriends and favors were used to cultivate friendship Among the Jewish people there was of a culture of charity based on religion which meant that they had a reputation as a people among whom there were many beggarsAnother chapter focuses on common beliefs Romans celebrated birthdays Jewish people generally did not Romans practiced birth control and considered abortion and infanticide as means toward that Until a baby was formally recognized by its father it was not considered a real human often newborn babies were left out exposed when not wanted allowed to die A common device in Roman plays was that of the abandoned baby taken in by another family and then reunited as an adult with its biological family While birth control was practiced among the Jewish people abortion was generally frowned upon especially once the fetus took on human features and infanticide was strictly forbiddenIdeas of the afterlife varied among both peoples Historically Romans had focused mostly on the here and now while the Jewish peoples had a notion of a spiritual realm and a possible afterlife the resurrection being an item of dispute Both eventually were heavily influenced by the Greeks and took on Greek beliefs about the eternal soulBurial practices among the peoples also differed Romans burned bodies and preserved the ashes in cemetaries Poor people were buried together but as Rome grew better off they too took to the upper class way of cremation Jewish peoples buried bodies whole often in caverns or in holes covered with stoneThe Jewish peoples had the creation story and one God the Romans had a pantheon of gods who were not necessarily seen as being intimately involved in human affairs some were some not History started with the foundation of Rome or with the gods not so much with creation Astrology was common among both peoples but mostly later on probably adopted from Greeks Egyptians and Babylonians Jewish teaching however discouraged its practice and some writers claimed that Abraham had once practiced the art but gave it up when he realized that God created all and had control over allThe relationship of humans to animals differed uite a bit Jewish people believed in treating animals with kindness but also looked at them mostly as creatures for work and food There doesn t seem to be much of a record of them using animals as pets Romans by contrast were much affectionate to animals but also much cruel Records of animals as pets exist and some buried animals like dogs with epitaphs much as some do today A dog among Jewish people would have largely been for tending sheep or guarding a home However Romans also engaged in sport with animals much hunting or fighting and killing them in front of an audience as at the sports arena Herod s love for hunting is placed by historians within a Roman context it was hunting for sport not food since the creatures killed were not kosherOf particular interest to me was a short section on moral philosophies Goodman summarizes three Roman systems Epicureanism Stoicism and Cynicalism Epicureanism has a reputation of being one in which anything goes so far as the pleasures of this life are concerned for it taught that pleasure is the be all and end all of living But what this really meant wasn t so much hedonism as it meant avoiding pain Because seeking one s own pleasure can result in pain ascetism could be the means by which Epicureans pursued pleasure avoid difficult situations by avoiding things that would bring them about such as a public life or politics Stoicism by contrast taught that virtue was the highest thing to be sought and it was by virtue that happiness was to be gained Other goods pleasure riches and fame were counterfeits If attained via virtue that was fine but they were not to be sought for their own sakeCynicism taught that life should be lived according to nature they rejected cultural norms materialism and strivings after wealth power fame and intellectual high thinking Concerns about race sex and class were all pointless They were in a sense anarchistsReligion paid little role in these means of deciphering morality By contrast for the Jews religion was of course the center of one s moral thinking and what was right and wrong was laid out in the scriptures Thinking often focused on gray areas delineating things the scriptures hadn t outright answered Ideas of about guilt sin and repentence common in Jewish thinking had no part in Roman thoughts about moralityNext comes a discussion of the varying lifestyles of the two peoples which can be clearly seen in their attitudes toward the body Romans thought little of nudity and muscled nude male sculptures some in actual states of arousal were common Genders mixed in the public baths and lust prevailed Sex outside of formal marriage it is implied was fairly common even if private though displays of sex in artwork were not uncommon Homesexuality was permitted especially between men of power and weaker men Jewish peoples by contrast had strictures against any sex outside of marriage Bodies let alone people or animals were rarely displayed in art The emphasis was on purity When Jewish people engaged in bathing it was in large part often for purification so than pleasure or even cleanlinessFor spectator events the Romans had plays singing mime troops gladiatorial bouts and chariot races Jewish life was comparatively staid Among the spectator and participatory events among them was dancingBoth Jewish and Roman societies had a heavy emphasis on law with extensive codes But their attitudes toward war were a bit different Rome used war as a means of extending power collecting taxes and consolidating power for the emperor It was heroic The Jewish nation s attitude toward war was ambivalent It could be used for similar things for which Rome used war extending power over other nations and gaining tributary but warriors were not typically glamorized in the same sense and often that glamour went to God with the warrior himself disparaged for the taking of life Roman war was vicious with looting rape and other horrors common for the victors which is one reason it was best to surrender Romans were also perserverant a battle might be lost but Rome would return over and over until it won the war Jewish credo often emphasized mercy give the enemy the opportunity to surrender don t cut down the fruit trees and so on Battle rules were written out even in the Bible Some genocide was mandated for peoples of Canaan but rules for other peoples were less total in mandated destructionAs for who had status and power in each society Goodman sums it up nicely In Rome political status derived primarily from wealth noble ancestry age and above all military glory In Jerusalem what mattered was lineage priestly or royal learning in the law and occasionally a claim to divine inspiration Romans showed off their power by showing off wealth paying for people to enjoy the bread and circus Emperors often derived from the same family or adopted family Wisdom was accorded to age though they put forth an effort to appease young folk with activities And of course success on the battlefield accorded with political power For the Jewish peoples older generally meant wiser too but after age fifty priests were forced to retire Little was done to appease youths so it seems those in the middle ages were those accorded the most power More important was being of Levitical heritage and being a scholar Showing off one s wealth was not generally seen as a necessarily good thing and one could be a poor scholar and have a modicum of respect from among the peopleJewish people were spread throughout the empire and their Sabbath and many of their ways came to be known among the Romans For the most part the two existed in relative harmony A large Jewish population lived in Rome itself and although they were kicked out in 19 and 49 these appear to have been temporary dismissals and perhaps not even in total In 19 the dismissal may have had to do with various Roman rites and a turn back toward the gods and symbolic purifying of the city in preparing for the change in emperor In 49 there apparently had been an uprising by one Christus but it s also possible that it was simply another purifying of the city This dismissal is the context in which Paul finds Auilla and Priscilla in Corinth in Acts them having left Rome but later to return as denoted in the letter to the Romans At this time gatherings of Jews weren t allowed but continuing practice of the Jewish religion could be completed discreetlyThe time from 6 to 66 CE in Jerusalem was one mostly of peace Goodman recounts the various uprisings that occurred during this time but notes that they were likely minor since they are barely mentioned if at all in Roman records More often these accounts come from Josephus sometimes they re mentioned in the Gospels or Acts Many such conflicts had to do with Jewish issues and power than with insurrections against the Roman authorities And even among the Jewish people the diaspora Jews did not typically side against Rome in putting down Jerusalem and the royal family actually supported RomeThe uestion arises then why the Romans put the Jewish rebellion down so hard and destroyed the Temple Goodman sees this as largely a fluke In the uest to consolidate power the aspiring emperor Vespasian needed a military victory which his son Titus afforded him through the conuest of the Jerusalem rebels Nero had recently died and various men took the spot as emperor in a short span fighting among each other This demanded swift and heavy action Even then according to Goodman s interpretation there was no plan to destroy the Temple the Romans did not generally mess with local gods but the military accidentally laid it on fire and that was that Accounts differ as to the motive with Josephus claiming accident but Sulpicius Severus claiming intent There was also the issue that the priests had recently begun refusing to offer a sacrifice to God in honor of the emperor With the Temple gone the best way to pass off its destruction was to pass it off as purposefulJerusalem itself was torn apart the Jewish people killed in great numbers over a million according to Josephus with the leftover one hundred thousand or so dispersed throughout the empire after enduring torture selling into slavery and so forth Land in Jerusalem was taken from the Jewish people and handed to others Gentiles the priestly class itself disappearedAnother thing that followed was a tax on being Jewish The tax was eual to the temple tax now that there was no temple Rome claimed the same amount of money and used it to pay for a temple to Jupiter Over the years anti Jewish feelings in Rome grew in part because Vespacian Titus and Domitian used the victory over Israel as a way to prop up their power to emphasize their greatness Domitian had no victories of his own he was simply related to the other two emperors so victory over Judaism was particularly important Trajan the next emperor even invaded Parthia taking over Mesopotamia to which many Jews had fledThe tax was done away with under the emperor Nerva who was kindly to the Jewish people but any hope that the Temple would be rebuilt ended after Hadrian came to power He reinstituted the tax Although his emphasis was on peace and stability within the empire thus he built Hadrian s wall on the border with Scotland and ended the Parthian campaign he saw the Jewish peoples as adding instability As such he built a new city atop the ruins of Jerusalem and put a temple to Jupiter near the site of the former Jewish Temple This according to Goodman sparked the Bar Khokhba revolt of 132 35 Some scholars say that it was the revolt itself that sparked Hadrian to build over Jerusalem but Goodman comes down on the other side of this debate What sparked Hadrian to build over Jerusalem however was unclear to me in Goodman s text perhaps simply memories of the revolt of 115In the third century emperors finally took an easier hand with the Jewish peoples removing the tax and allowing them to live by their customs without interference They did not return to Jerusalem however though many still lived in the land of Palestine Rome had renamed the region Julian just after Constantine even made plans to rebuild the Temple though not out of sympathy for the Jews but rather because he was against Christianity and thought sacrifices to be in line with paganismThe destruction of the temple in 66 also helped to separate the Jewish people from the sect of Christianity which had initially been a sect of the Jewish religion Christians were seen as atheists by Rome since they did not align themselves with any god to whom sacrifices were owed By going along with Jewish customs they were subject to the tax on Jews by not doing so they were not subject to the tax but then they were subject to persecution for not participating in Roman religiouscivic rites That said Goodman sees persecution as coming mostly from local sources rather than from the empire itself with a few brief exceptionsBy the time that Constantine made Christianity the official religion it was a good deal different than its Jewish roots Gone were many of the Jewish practices dietary restrictions the Sabbath circumcision concerns with purity However there was still a reliance on Scripture if only metaphorically a much prudish attitude toward sex a hate of abortion a disdain for the worship of other gods and an emphasis on charity Constantine tried to settle various theological disputes to help shore up the unity of the church and the empire He built Christian churches where before there had been only house churches often at the supposed site of martyrdoms

free download ↠ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook å Martin Goodman

Martin Goodman å 0 free download free download ↠ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook å Martin Goodman review Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations 100 A magisterial history of the titanic struggle between the Roman and Jewish worlds that led to the destruction of JerusalemIn 70 CE after a four year war three Roman legions besieged and eventually devastated Jerusalem destroying Herod’s magnificent Temple Sixty years later after further violent rebellions and the city’s final destruction Hadrian built the new city of Aelia Capitolina where Jerusalem had once stood Jews were barred from entering its ter. Oh mighty tome this is A brilliant history of two centuries possibly the most important period in world history PompeyJesusVespasianTitusMasadaBar KochbaHadrianClaudiusJosephus If anyone reads any history book this is it if only to understand the middle east conflict of the 21st century


10 thoughts on “(Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman

  1. says: characters Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations (Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman Martin Goodman å 0 free download

    (Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman free download ↠ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook å Martin Goodman Martin Goodman å 0 free download Rather than writing a complete coherent review I am simply going to list the many points which make this book a serious suspect in my mind insofar as historical writing goes For one it's simply dull this is the least of its sins but even aca

  2. says: characters Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations (Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman Martin Goodman å 0 free download

    Martin Goodman å 0 free download free download ↠ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook å Martin Goodman characters Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations Martin Goodman is one of the current heavyweight historians of the Roman period of biblical times Goodman edited the Oxford Bible Commentary on the Apocrypha an assignment a serious scholar would not accept lightly This book may be the most widely published and popular work by Goodman to date I hope he'll continue to writ

  3. says: (Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman free download ↠ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook å Martin Goodman

    Martin Goodman å 0 free download free download ↠ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook å Martin Goodman (Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman Oh mighty tome this is A brilliant history of two centuries possibly the most important period in world history

  4. says: (Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman

    characters Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations (Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman In this less than straightforward but fair comprehensive accessible and judicious volume Goodman examines the conflict between Rome and the Judean provinces the various forms it took and how it eventually ended in the famous destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD Despite the title he strongly suggests that such a conflict was not inevitable nor was the destruction of the Temple necessarily inevitable given that Roman generals typically avoided s

  5. says: (Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman

    (Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman Very well written albeit extremely detailed account of the issues leading up to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Roman army in the First Century ADThe first and longest section of the book is a meticulous exami

  6. says: characters Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations free download ↠ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook å Martin Goodman Martin Goodman å 0 free download

    Martin Goodman å 0 free download free download ↠ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook å Martin Goodman characters Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations This book is about the run up to and the aftermath of the Great Jewish Revolt of 66 73 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem It explores the tensions and hostilities that led to the war between the Jewish state and the Roman Empire

  7. says: free download ↠ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook å Martin Goodman Martin Goodman å 0 free download characters Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations

    (Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman Martin Goodman å 0 free download characters Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations A fascinating look at both the Roman and Jewish cultures considering things that were alike and different It wasn't until the last portion of the book that Goodman shifted from analysis to argument for why these two cultures clashed so heavily

  8. says: (Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman

    free download ↠ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook å Martin Goodman Martin Goodman å 0 free download (Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman This is ostensibly an in depth look at the context in which and causes of the rebellion of the Jews against Rome occurred around 70 AD resulting in the destruction of Herod's temple The opener sets up the circumstances detailing the rebellion itself Goodman however wonders why the rebellion occurred when other cultural entities taken over by the Roman Empire did not have similar rebellions and when the Jews in many ways were so well integr

  9. says: (Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman Martin Goodman å 0 free download

    Martin Goodman å 0 free download (Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman This book is a mixed bag A lot of good research here but the problem is that the researcher is so very selective in his presentation biasing t

  10. says: characters Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations (Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman free download ↠ PDF, DOC, TXT or eBook å Martin Goodman

    (Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations) PDF READ Ô Martin Goodman Martin Goodman å 0 free download characters Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations This is one of the most sensitive treatments of Jewish Roman relations and cultural similarities differences that I have read It is intended for a mass market audience and thus is uits easy to read although still full of gr

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  • Hardcover
  • 624
  • Rome and Jerusalem The Clash of Ancient Civilizations
  • Martin Goodman
  • English
  • 04 October 2020
  • 9780375411854