KINDLE [The Turn of the Screw]

  • Paperback
  • 134
  • The Turn of the Screw
  • Henry James
  • English
  • 14 June 2019
  • 9780141441351

Henry James  6 Free download

Download ☆ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Â Henry James Free read The Turn of the Screw 106 Ora Unsettled by a dark foreboding of menace within the house she soon comes to believe that something malevolent is stalking the children in her care But is the threat to her young charges really a malign and ghostly presence or something else entirely The Turn of the Screw is James's great masterpiece of haunting atmosphere and unbearable tensi. I hate when I don t love a classic It makes me feel stupid like I m too ignorant to comprehend literary brilliance I m particularly disappointed in myself for not loving A Turn of the Screw because I m such a huge fan of all things ghastly and Gothic And this is bothBut it s true I didn t care for it The governess appears seemingly out of thin air lacks personality or any believable motivation Her obsession with the children is either utter nonsense or perversely sexual Neither option is welcomed The children themselves never demonstrate behavior to suggest they are genuinely charming or particularly sinister Most egregious the baroue language misses an opportunity to be indulgent on eerie atmosphere and haunting description Instead it all comes across rather plainMuch of the academic admiration is around James carefully crafted structure which invites two interpretations Either the apparitions are real or are they are the manifestations of the governess s disturbed mind Either the children are angels or demons Dialogue and details are intentionally vague to allow both interpretations and allegedly this is what makes the book so goodI didn t see it that way Ambiguity can be used with great success to create a sense of mystery and suspense But in this case I find it irksome Why are the characters behaving so stupidly Why are their motivations so senseless Did I miss a page somewhereGiven the scant details around the governess s background and her inhuman obsessions I might argue that she is a ghost herself I m sure I could hunt down sentences to back up this unconventional theory There s probably an argument to be made that she s a space alien Or that the whole thing is a bizarre dream It might be a fun project to see how many peculiar interpretations can be made from emphasizing indistinct lines in different ways I would do it but honestly one read through is enoughAll this said I do think it is indisputable how influential this novella has been on Gothic literature for the past 100 years I know my critical reaction is a minority opinion on this one If you re a fan please add a comment and help me understand what I m missing

characters The Turn of the Screw

The Turn of the Screw

Download ☆ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Â Henry James Free read The Turn of the Screw 106 On and has influenced subseuent ghost stories and films such as The Innocents starring Deborah Kerr and The Others starring Nicole Kidman This Penguin Classics edition contains a chronology further reading notes and an introduction by David Bromwich examining the dark ambiguity of James's work and the inseparability of narrative from point of vie. I seemed to float not into clearness but into a darker obscure and within a minute there had come to me out of my very pity the appalling alarm of his perhaps being innocent It was for the instant confounding and bottomless for if he were innocent what then on earth was I A young governess accepts a position in a beautiful estate in the English countryside in Essex The cosmopolitan uncle entrusts his niece and nephew into her hands and asks not to be disturbed under any circumstances Bly is enormous the acres endless the house full of corridors and closed doors Our unnamed narrator couldn t be happier Flora and Miles couldn t be lovelier And then darkness arrives A man standing on a tower a woman in black standing by the lake A strange song and a face at the window I could only get on at all by taking nature into my confidence and my account by treating my monstrous ordeal as a push in a direction unusual of course and unpleasant but demanding after all for a fair front only another turn of the screw of ordinary human virtue Having recently watched for the tenth time the marvelous 1961 film The Innocents I thought that it was time to read one of Henry James most controversial works once again I always choose this as a part of my summer readings Its sultry atmosphere soon becomes eerie its underlying sensuality grows within an environment of secrets and charged sexual tension Suffocating and enticing cryptic and provoking Challenging Hungry The uestions are many Is everything real Is the young woman imagining things Has she created a world of her own projecting her frustrations upon the innocents Or has she found herself in a whirlwind of lust and obsession orchestrated by two malevolent spirits who use the children as vessels and instruments Each reader needs to draw hisher own conclusions James is not a writer who provides every solution at the end of his works Even daily mundane issues and snapshots of ordinary life acuire a different colour in each novel The Turn of the Screw is in a league of its own The summer had turned the summer had gone the autumn had dropped upon Bly and had blown out half our lights The place with its gray sky and withered garlands its bared spaces and scattered dead leaves was like a theater after the performance all strewn with crumpled playbills Whatever your expectations may be James created one of the best if not THE best Gothic novels of all time Uniue descriptions commanding atmosphere a background full of contrasts and dark imagery The idyllic estate that changes when night falls Two charming gifted children that seem rather fascinated with Death a housemaid that seems to protect every secret of the house The Turn of the Screw defined the Gothic genre and paved the way for the trope of the Haunted House that is still extremely popular More than ever in fact Whispers apparitions murmurs nightly windows shadows a troubled young woman who wants to help and understand Add desire and a potential incestuous relationship lurking in the future and you have a timeless storyI read this novella when I was 17 It frustrated me because I was impatient wanting to have every answer delivered on a silver plate We discussed the hell out of it in university and I fell in love I understood that the majority of the finest books written create uestions when their final page is turned It was this work that gave birth to my fascination with dubious closures Now no matter how many times I have read it its magnetism stays strongAnd I am one of those who side with the heroine I firmly believe that it was all true There are many dark forces around us and beyond us Who s to say for certain I take up my own pen again the pen of all my old unforgettable efforts and sacred struggles To myself today I need say no Large and full and high the future still opens It is now indeed that I may do the work of my life And I will My reviews can also be found on

Download ☆ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Â Henry James

Download ☆ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB Â Henry James Free read The Turn of the Screw 106 A chilling ghost story wrought with tantalising ambiguity Henry James's The Turn of the Screw is edited with an introduction and notes by David Bromwich in Penguin Classics In what Henry James called a 'trap for the unwary' The Turn of the Screw tells of a nameless young governess sent to a country house to take charge of two orphans Miles and Fl. Now you see me now you don t What the Meaning understanding and certainty all become elusive chimera in this ambiguous game of hide and seek that Henry James plays with us Have you ever been in one of those weird situations where you wondered if you were losing your mind doubting whether what you were seeing was real And what it was that you were seeing This is one of those what the heck novels that you often find in the modernist genre Not originally classed as a modernist novel by now it is viewed as one by many modern critics because of the ambiguity and layers that James managed to captureIt is just as slippery and ambiguous and as what on earth is happening here as the most obfuscating of the modernist novels one tends to struggle with trying to figure out what is going on like with Virginia Woolf s The Waves William Faulkner s The Sound and the Fury Thomas Pynchon s Gravity s Rainbow Henry James might not be playing around as much as true modernists do with narrative voice although he built three layers into his narrative viewpoint and the story is certainly a metatext Like most modernists he does play around to some extent with temporality but only to a small extent and only slightly with structure However it is the play with meaning the what the heck actually happened here that lends so much ambiguity and scope for interpretation that makes this novella shinePart of what points to our narration being unreliable is the fact that the novella is a nested metatext being a story someone is telling about a story that someone else told him about a story that someone else told himThe fun is that it reads like a Gothic novel and for all intents and purposes would be a Gothic novel were it not for the subtleties in meaning and content context leaping out at the reader especially the modern sophisticated reader who doesn t actually believe in you know ghosts However the story isn t really creepy in the way that conventional ghost stories areWell it is sort ofBut it s also like when you walk into your house at night and the lights are dimmed and there s this hat and coat stand at the end of the passage and in the shadows it looks like there s a person there watching and waiting and you wonder IS THAT Or no is that just my imagination playing tricks on me Yet you take our time all the time eyeing that shadowy figure and you uickly walk to the light switch and flick it onThough the governess s shadowman had no hat therefore not a gentlemanHave you ever had a dream in which you vaguely become aware of the presence of someone you feel you know You seem to know him well from some other dreamscape and yet you cannot place your finger on who he is yet his presence seems so sinister If someone were to ask you who the shadowy man at the edge of your vision was you might reply Why Nobody and yet you fear him but don t know why You know the reason is sitting just at the tip of your consciousness but it s all cast in shadow and yet it makes you feel so terribly uneasy You may even wonder in such a dream if that shadowy image could somehow be you yourself but the thought of that the very idea makes your hair stand on end gives you a leaden pith of dread that sinks into your stomach and grips your insides with discomfortDream analysts would say that that strangely familiar figure is a projection of the part of your own self that you find unacceptable This other self can even appear threatening because often our aggressive impulses have to be suppressed as much as or even than our sexual impulses If that self came loose from under our control it could be a dangerous thing and therefore we fear it albeit on a subconscious levelHave you ever had a dream like that This novella was reminiscent of such a dream made me feel like I was reading about such a dreamSome people read this as a ghost story some as a horror story and some as a psychological thriller or study there are depths depths The I go over it the I see in it and the I see in it the I fear I don t know what I don t see that I don t fear I must mention that I got most of the detail about the different types of analyses from the Beidler critical edition of The Turn of the Screw that is full of background material cultural context history critical essays and interpretations of the textThere are Marxist interpretations of this story Jungian interpretations Freudian ones Reader response analyses Post modern Modern New Criticism New Historicism views of the story you name it Oh and of course there are those among some of the abovementioned who take a gay view as well There is no real evidence for or against the directions James s orientation leaned though I have read some excerpts of his letters to young men that would incline me to agree that there s a strong possibility that he was gayAmong the gay proponents are those who say that the governess is a subconscious projection by James of himself and his repressed urges Whatever other conclusions one might come to you have to admit that the governess is one tight little ball of repressed urges I see her as being under a lot of pressure from various origins One of the pressures she has is an urge to gain power If you think about it the governess is actually a nobody One of the younger children of an obscure country preacher and a female to boot not much going for her beyond some homeschooling privately bred is there and now she is suddenly at the helm of an entire household and uite a wealthy one at that but her charming seductive employer wants no contact with her She is at the helm all on her ownsome uite a situation for an inexperienced young country girl to find herself inWayne C Booth a well known lit crit has said In English alone I have counted before I got too bored to go on than five hundred titles of books and articles about The Turn of the Screw and since it has been translated and discussed in dozens of other languages the total must yield than a lifetime s possible readingso yeah there s been a lot of gabble about this little story and the interesting part is that hardly anyone seems able to agree on what the story actually says James has been very subtle and clever Even in his preface and in his responses to readers of the story he did not give the game away Indeed he says in his preface that the reader s own imagination his own sympathy and horror will supply him uite sufficiently with all the particulars Ha and so it has proved to beStart of SPOILER section Here are some of the variations on interpretations of how the screw really turnsview spoiler1 A straight Ghost story reading In this version the ghosts are real ghosts and everything the governess says is reliable and true2 A variety of ironic readings According to the most cynical versions the governess is cruel and egocentric she either made the whole thing up to get attention or used a fiction of seeing ghosts to try and gain the status of a heroine and to make the master of Bly whom she is in love with take notice of herOther readings are cynical of actual ghosts but sympathetic towards the governess in interpreting the ghosts as illusions seen by the governess Some feel that these illusions are the product of a diseased mind or of a madwoman some feel that they are the products of her hysteria brought on by her sexual longing for the master of Bly Some of the ironic readings are mixed Some people say that the whole thing was a prank by the children or the servants or even an attempt by Mrs Grose to drive the governess mad so that Mrs Grose could have her position back as head of the Bly householdIn any case this was my first take on the story before I had read all the hundreds of interpretations out thereMy impression of the children s uncle the governesses charming extravagant seductive employer was what a douchebag The typical tycoon who extricates himself from his interpersonal responsibilities with cash Set the poor little orphans up in a nice comfortable mansion with a string of servants and he doesn t have to know that they existI uite enjoyed the Marxist critiue of the story and of course no Marxist would have any charitable feelings towards our dashing rich aristocrat who so blithely consigns people to nothingness banishing them from his sphere of consciousness like ants At first I was entirely sympathetic towards the governess With her first sighting of uint although I thought the whole set up of how she spotted him was eerie and strange I initially suspected that uint might be a ghost though one isn t entirely sure this is how subtle James is I thought he might possibly be a person lurking around the place in a sinister way The thing that caught me there was that she was walking around thinking and daydreaming about her employer and wishing he would appear and lo A man did appear However like the governess says not uite the man she had wanted to appearThose who argue in favor of actual ghosts say that the fact that Mrs Grose could identify him proves that he was really the ghost of uint However she has only the governess word to go on and recall the governess s initial vagueness about how he looked When first asked to describe him she says that he looks like nobody That rather shook me in a weird way It was my first indication that all might not be uite right with the governess s mind The second sighting at the dining room really impressed me Wow One of the best and weirdest pieces of fiction I had read in a long long time There s so much in that little scene First the way she sees him suddenly through the window looking in Even if he were a real person coming suddenly upon a stranger looking in on your privacy like that must give anybody uite a turn Note that she then realizes that he is not looking for her She sounds almost a bit disappointed about that but how does she know that How does she know who he is looking for Then the next part is so well done I read governess s problem as being one of ego and narcissism Like we ve said nobody ever takes any notice of her even the children don t take much notice of her they merely seem to humor her while they re actually living in their own little world But the children had adored uint and Jessel as we have heard by nowSo what does she do Just like a jealous stepmother she goes out and puts herself in her predecessor s place She literally replaces her predecessor s image and position with her own by going around to where he had stood and she literally says in the story It was confusedly present to me that I ought to place myself where he had stood I did so I applied my face to the pane and looked as he had looked into the room As if at this moment to show me exactly what his range had been Mrs Grose as I had done for himself just before came in from the hall This dreamscape like scenario lends itself to some very interesting Freudian and Jungian interpretations indeed In the Freudian view ok there are a few actually uint and Jessel s relationship forms an inversion of the governess and her employer s relationship Jessel and this is also part of the Marxist interpretation had taken a step down when she fell in love with a mere servant whereas the governess s ambition goes upward towards her employerThis replacement theme features very strongly in the story note the schoolroom scene where Jessel replaces the governess by sitting in her chair at her desk I uote she had looked at me long enough to appear to say that her right to sit at my table was as good as mine to sit at hers While these instants lasted indeed I had the extraordinary chill of feeling that it was I who was the intruderTo me the scary part is the implication that both uint and Jessel are projections by the governess of repressed aspects of her own psycheBut the scariest interpretation is reading the governess as a psychotic paranoid schizophrenic If one reads the story as if this was a given it s very very creepy with the governesses psychosis gradually growing to such huge proportions that even the long suffering Mrs Grose takes fright and removes little Flora as uickly as she can There are some people who feel that the governess murdered Miles on purpose but my personal reading was sympathetic towards her I thought that she had perhaps only smothered Miles in her zealous embrace Note that she does say I caught him yes I held him it may be imagined with what a passion So she wasn t just giving him a friendly light uick little hug there She was sueeezing the poor tyke I had of a feeling that she was a person whose mind was slowly coming apart I felt she was a person who clung to the children as being her only justification for being someone in the world they gave her life meaning and it is via being their governess that she is at the helm of the household at Bly I felt her worst fault was a histrionic narcissistic type of problemNote her panic at Miles s reuests to be returned to school how she fences with him She seems terrified of him leaving Bly of him escaping from her grasp because surely then her status part of her whole reason for being would be diminishedI also found that the governess kept seeming to read Mrs Grose s reaction incorrectly Did Mrs Grose really want to kiss her And all along didn t the poor Mrs Grose simply comply with whatever ridiculous claims the governess came up with just so that she wouldn t anger this madwoman andor wouldn t run the risk of losing her position at Bly After all the governess was put in charge of the household and therefore she might have the power to fire Mrs Grose or at least have her fired It s only at the end after Flora couldn t take the governess excesses any that Mrs Grose managed to scrape together enough guts to stand up to the governess in trying to protect poor FloraThere are those who see a lot of pederasty in the story between uint and Miles and some people even between Jessel and Flora I must admit that I originally also thought that there was at least than friendship between uint and Miles because that would fit in nicely with the reason why Miles was expelled It would then make sense that he probably said to those that he liked either that he likes them or loves them or even that he would like to to put in Victorian language try out a bit of buggery with themJames had put Miles s reaction so beautifully He looked in vague pain all round the top of the room and drew his breath two or three times over as if with difficulty He might have been standing at the bottom of the sea and raising his eyes to some faint green twilight Well I said things Later on I was not so sure anyAs for pederasty between the governess and the children some have suggested that she felt a pederastic passion for Miles and I must admit that the lines We continued silent while the maid was with us as silent it whimsically occurred to me as some young couple who on their wedding journey at the inn feel shy in the presence of the waiter He turned round only when the waiter had left us Well so we re alone do seem rather suggestive of this Though I feel one can t be certainThe fireside narrator from the intro to the story Douglas was I think a poor fool who was taken in by the governess and believed her storiesThat s or less how I saw the thing fitting together but of course there are a many other interpretationsIn the Marxist interpretation class differences are explored The children are scorned by their upper class peers because they dared to lower themselves by mixing with the servants as represented especially by uint The governess sees uint as a horror because he is of the lower classes and Jessel as an evil woman because she lowered herself by falling in love with a servantIn the Freudian interpretation you can of course expect it to be all about sex and repressed subconscious desires I must admit that James either consciously or subconsciously used some sexual imagery uint is associated with the tower obviously phallic and Jessel is spotted by the lake the latter of which is often see as a symbol for the womb Also while Jessell appears to the governess at the lake Flora is engaged in sticking a phallic piece of wood into a hole in another piece of wood Heh hide spoiler