PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky


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  • Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U-Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare
  • Stephen Budiansky
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  • 13 October 2019
  • 9780307962638

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  1. says: PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky free download ↠ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Stephen Budiansky

    PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky As usual Stephen does a stellar job of translating a historical telling into a remarkable thriller full of personal spins and anecdotes The things that happened are interspersed with rich detail about the people who participated in the war effort their little egomaniacal decisions their idiosyncrasies the bickering the bureaucracy It's amazing I have not found another author that does such a mesmerizing work with non fictionAnyhow this b

  2. says: PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky

    PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky Stephen Budiansky ↠ 6 read summary Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U-Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare Outstanding read Patrick Blackett’s career is used as a metaphor for an examination of the role played by scientists in defeating t

  3. says: PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky free download ↠ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Stephen Budiansky

    free download ↠ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Stephen Budiansky Stephen Budiansky ↠ 6 read PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky When I was in grad school the most significant development in the historiography of Modern Britain aside from the whole New Social History stuff that was going on in the 70s was the revelation about UltraWinterbotham's 'The Ultra Secret' came out in 1974 just as I was moving into the PhD program and as my mentor said it would reuire all of World War II history to be re written It didI've been able to keep up with a lot of that rew

  4. says: PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky

    summary Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U-Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky free download ↠ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Stephen Budiansky The Nazi U boats devastated Allied shipping during the war It took a combined effort of convoys air patrols statistical analysis scientific theory and military application to win the war of the Atlantic Budiansky examines the key personalities and persistent challenges of this Allied effortWhy I started this book I'm on an audio roll and so I downloaded a title from my vast professional reading listWhy I fin

  5. says: summary Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U-Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare Stephen Budiansky ↠ 6 read free download ↠ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Stephen Budiansky

    PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky free download ↠ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Stephen Budiansky summary Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U-Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare A very interesting read especially after reading THE MATHEWS MEN which described the submarineconvoy war from the POV of American submariners See my review of thatThis is the story of scientists pulled into scientific analysis and code breaking for the best ways to defeat the U boats which caused devastating such losses of

  6. says: PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky Stephen Budiansky ↠ 6 read summary Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U-Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare

    PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky summary Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U-Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare If You Think You Know Your World War II History and Have Not Read This Book Then You Probably Have Large Gaps in Your KnowledgeThis is one of the books published recently and based on restricted World War II archive information only recently declassified and made available to the public This information has substantially rewritten t

  7. says: PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky

    free download ↠ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Stephen Budiansky Stephen Budiansky ↠ 6 read PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky The book starts with a history of submarines Then gets into how science has been used in war Two other books I have read tie into thi

  8. says: PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky

    Stephen Budiansky ↠ 6 read free download ↠ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Stephen Budiansky summary Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U-Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare September 1 2014 will mark the 75th anniversary of Hitler’s invasion of Poland and the start of WWII One of the least considered but most critical aspects of the War was the contest for control of the sea The pervasive conflict British Prime Minister Winston Churchill called “the Battle of the Atlantic” Germany dominated early fighting in the Battle of the Atlantic The Battle of the Atlantic in its scope and significance the sea was

  9. says: PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky Stephen Budiansky ↠ 6 read summary Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U-Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare

    PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky free download ↠ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Stephen Budiansky summary Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U-Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare Blackett's War is a very interesting and informative book about the men who brought science to bear on the U Boat problem during the Second World War Blackett's group had to overcome the military's distrust of outsiders telling them how to proceed with operations during the war This story is about both British and American scientists who were involved in presenting statistical analysis and truly inspirational ideas to both coun

  10. says: free download ↠ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Stephen Budiansky Stephen Budiansky ↠ 6 read PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky

    PDF KINDLE (Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U–Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare) author Stephen Budiansky free download ↠ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Stephen Budiansky Stephen Budiansky has written one of the best studies I have read about the men working together during World War II who defeated the Nazi U Boats In writing this compelling story Budiansky has opened the door and cast an important l

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Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U-Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare

Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U-Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare free read ↠ 6 free download ↠ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Stephen Budiansky Stephen Budiansky ↠ 6 read E Throughout Stephen Budiansky describes how scientists became intimately involved with what had once been the distinct province of military commanders convincing disbelieving military brass to trust the solutions suggested by their analysis Budiansky shows that these men above all retained the belief that operational research and a scientific mentality could change the world It’s a belief that has come to fruition with the spread of their tenets to the business and military worlds and it started in the Battle of the Atlantic in an attempt to outfight the Germans but most of all to outwit them . The book starts with a history of submarines Then gets into how science has been used in war Two other books I have read tie into this one beautifully One is Tuxedo Park about Alfred Loomis and the effort to create effective radar the Manhattan project and a variety of other devices It expands on some of the areas covered in this book The other is To End All Wars A Story of Loyalty and Rebellion 1914 1918 It goes into the idiocy of the British and French Commanders and how they were fighting the last war which this book touches on But it also goes into the Socialism movement and Communist movement during the war and how that affected what was going on In this book it talks about how many of the scientists that helped in WWI and WWII were liberal or socialist and a few communist Yet they were crucial to winning or shortening the warThe first submarine to sink a ship was the Hunley It was built by the south during the Civil War In the late 1800s people were intrigued by flight and submarines It talks about some that were steam powered that weren t very successful but better than the hand cranked ones previouslyJohn Holland created the first viable submarine The only group he could get to fund him was a bunch of Irish looking for independence There were issues with that but the US Navy realized he had a working prototype and hired him to build submarines for them There had been problems no only with propulsion but also with stability Holland solved those with his design and to this day all submarines are based on his design He used diesel and then added batteries for running underwater This was just before and after 1900I hadn t realized how effective submarines were for the Germans in WWI I thought they were of a WWII event They took out a lot of commercial shipping and crippled England which is so dependent on shipping I hadn t realized that England made sure that their navy had as many ships as the next 2 largest navies combined Last of the Empire Don t think that was still true in WWIIThe Brits were very concerned until a US Naval officer suggested using convoys which the Brits had rejected for various poor reasons Almost immediately the sinkings by the German submarines dropped significantlyBlackett of the book s title was an officer during WWI He then went and got a PhD in physics and he earned a Nobel in 1948According to the To End All Wars book Germany surrendered before much if any of the fighting occurred in Germany So the soldiers were aware of the horrors of modern war but the population wasn t which made them open to going to war again What this book points out is that the preparation started way earlier than I imagined It says that in 1921 and 1922 the Germans were already breaking the terms of the peace treaty and starting to re armBefore WWII many of the scientists were liberal to socialist and were all for disarmament Apparently it was a widespread notion in the population in general to have all nations disarm Ultimately when they saw what Germany was doing they came around Blackett having been in the military and some of the other scientists felt it was important to have scientists helping improve the results A group of scientists were told that they would be asked for help if war was imminent Of course nothing happened However one of the group met a publisher and they wrote a short book or pamphlet on why help from scientists was needed in modern warfare It was published anonymously and made uite a stir At the same time Churchill became prime minister and he was much open to this Tizzard took the lead on the committee and they started working on different projectsThere was one Lindemann who was friends with Churchill and he and Churchill kept coming up with crackpot ideas which delayed some of the other projects Although some of the things Churchill pushed for turned out to be good One was a way to degauss ships so mines would not detonateOne of the first things they helped with was helping set up and improving the string of antennae along the coast for radar so they knew when German planes were coming They also figured out how to make the anti aircraft guns effective And another helped improve the sinking of submarines by airplanes dropping depth charges The planes had been targeting the average of what the subs did But the average was almost never where they were They changed the depth and targeting of the drops to make them much effective Also after investigation they realized the planes needed to be painted in camouflage so the subs couldn t spot them and dive as uickly The kill rate dramatically increasedThis started the whole area of operations research Sometimes it was coming up with new technologies but to a large extent it was figuring out how to use current technology better and efficiently Even simple things like the lines to clean mess plates after meals They had 2 buckets for rinsing and 2 for washing But washing took 3 times as long as rinsing so the scientists changed it to 1 tub for rinsing and 3 for washing The lines disappeared Simple example but they were looking for bottlenecks and ways to improve things As one person said they only seemed simple in hindsightTizzard had a falling out with Churchill and Lindemann and ended up being sent to the United States to work with the scientists there He brought something the British invented called a cavitron which made radar much better and decreased the size of the euipment making it possible to add into planes for the first time Tizzard in the US is covered in detail in Tuxedo ParkA lot of the book deals with how difficult it was to get the military leaders to listen to them After the war and being able to look at the data it turned out that if the military leaders hadn t been so egotistical and hardheaded and perhaps understood science statistics and probability better hundreds of ships would not have been lost and tens of thousands of lives would not have been lost You could almost say they should have been tried for war crimes My comment not the book sTwo of the worst offenders were General Harris head of the Army Air Corp and Admiral King who was Commander in Chief Atlantic Fleet King among other things did not like and distrusted the British and refused to have an Brit in charge of any joint operation and generally was against joint operations Both King and Harris would not listen to what the scientists had found out about the most effective way to fight the submarines and in particular how to use air power to help with thisThey wouldn t at first listen that larger convoys were better than smaller ones The Navy men felt by gut that smaller was better But submarines could only sink so many at one time so got through with a larger convoy Plus the radius increased far less than the area within a convoy so not that many ships were needed to protect a larger convoy freeing up ships for other convoys or other dutyHarris felt that bombing the civilian population of Germany would win the war The scientists based on the poorly trained crews and looking at the photos realized that not much was getting hit and that not much damage was being done It made sense to focus on military targets and to divert some of the planes to protecting convoys and killing submarines Harris instead kept sending aviators to their deaths for what was shown after the war to have been for the most part a fruitless effort Harris spent the war fire bombing German cities because he felt that alone would win the war and not even reuire the D Day invasion He also insisted on using the new centimeter wavelength radar in the bombers even though it had been shown that it did little to help accuracy It helped tremendously in hunting U boats So one of Harris s planes got shot down and the Germans found the new device and started working on ways to counteract its effectiveness Churchill and Lindemann became Lord Cherwell partway through the war continued to be both good and bad It was good that Churchill liked scientists and helped push what they were doing but he listened too much to Lindemann and never had a good grasp of naval and antisubmarine tacticsOne uestion by Lindemann was helpful It got the scientists doing evaluations which led to uestions and ended up with them figuring out how large convoys should be and how many ships were needed to effectively protect them There was also idiocy about bombing the submarine shelters along the French coast at St Nazaire and other French ports This was done even though the leaders had been told the concrete was too thick The few times there was a direct hit it left little pockmarks on the top and was useless All the subs had to transit the Bay of Biscay Finally the scientists got the proper flights and ships to scan for them and the submarine kills went up dramatically Also because they had to spend time submerged and effort evading the Allies it meant less time they could spend out in the Atlantic hunting Allied shippingMixed into the story was also info about the code breaking efforts that went on and the Enigma machine etc A great book that goes into great and fascinating detail on this is Code Girls Many of the code breakers were women Another good book is The Woman Who Smashed Codes The Americans were behind in this area and because J Edgar Hoover and others liked publicity and had had some screw ups the Brits were leary of sharing any information with them about code breaking especially Enigma and Alan Turing s work This changed as the war went on and there was great collaboration by the end There were lengthy parts in the book about the code breaking which was interesting but adding details wouldn t add much to this reviewThe book pointed out that the German s never used scientists the way the Allies did even though the Allies fought the scientists recommendations in many cases If the Germans had done this from the start of the war the war might have turned out differently or lasted much longerAt the end of the book it pointed out that what was so revolutionary during WWII the creation of Operations Research and using science and statistics to solve problems is now so common place in the military and in business the nobody pays it much attention TRAITE DE L AMOUR FOU used in war Two other books I have read tie into this one beautifully One is Tuxedo Park about Alfred Loomis and the effort to create effective radar the Manhattan project and a variety of other devices It expands on some of the areas covered in this book The other is To End All Wars A Story of Loyalty and Rebellion 1914 1918 It goes into the idiocy of the British and French Commanders and how they were fighting the last war which this book touches on But it also goes into the Socialism movement and Communist movement during the war and how that affected what was going on In this book it talks about how many of the scientists that helped in WWI and WWII were liberal or socialist and a few communist Yet they were crucial to winning or shortening the warThe first submarine to sink a ship was the Hunley It was built by the south during the Civil War In the late 1800s people were intrigued by flight and submarines It talks about some that were steam powered that weren t very successful but better than the hand cranked ones previouslyJohn Holland created the first viable submarine The only group he could get to fund him was a bunch of Irish looking for independence There were issues with that but the US Navy realized he had a working prototype and hired him to build submarines for them There had been problems no only with propulsion but also with stability Holland solved those with his design and to this day all submarines are based on his design He Les fous d'amour au Moyen Age : Orient-Occident used diesel and then added batteries for running Amours fous underwater This was just before and after 1900I hadn t realized how effective submarines were for the Germans in WWI I thought they were of a WWII event They took out a lot of commercial shipping and crippled England which is so dependent on shipping I hadn t realized that England made sure that their navy had as many ships as the next 2 largest navies combined Last of the Empire Don t think that was still true in WWIIThe Brits were very concerned Saintes familles : Amours fous - Saint amour - Anges du chaos until a US Naval officer suggested Majnûn et Laylâ : L'amour fou (La Bibliothèque arabe) using convoys which the Brits had rejected for various poor reasons Almost immediately the sinkings by the German submarines dropped significantlyBlackett of the book s title was an officer during WWI He then went and got a PhD in physics and he earned a Nobel in 1948According to the To End All Wars book Germany surrendered before much if any of the fighting occurred in Germany So the soldiers were aware of the horrors of modern war but the population wasn t which made them open to going to war again What this book points out is that the preparation started way earlier than I imagined It says that in 1921 and 1922 the Germans were already breaking the terms of the peace treaty and starting to re armBefore WWII many of the scientists were liberal to socialist and were all for disarmament Apparently it was a widespread notion in the population in general to have all nations disarm Ultimately when they saw what Germany was doing they came around Blackett having been in the military and some of the other scientists felt it was important to have scientists helping improve the results A group of scientists were told that they would be asked for help if war was imminent Of course nothing happened However one of the group met a publisher and they wrote a short book or pamphlet on why help from scientists was needed in modern warfare It was published anonymously and made Un amour si fort, si fou,,, : Collection : Collection harlequin n° 436 uite a stir At the same time Churchill became prime minister and he was much open to this Tizzard took the lead on the committee and they started working on different projectsThere was one Lindemann who was friends with Churchill and he and Churchill kept coming L'or des fous : Vies, amours et mésaventures au pays des Four Corners de Rob Schultheis,Marc Amfreville (Traduction) ( 6 mars 2008 ) up with crackpot ideas which delayed some of the other projects Although some of the things Churchill pushed for turned out to be good One was a way to degauss ships so mines would not detonateOne of the first things they helped with was helping set L'or des fous : Vies, amours et mésaventures au pays des Four Corners by Rob Schultheis(2008-03-06) up and improving the string of antennae along the coast for radar so they knew when German planes were coming They also figured out how to make the anti aircraft guns effective And another helped improve the sinking of submarines by airplanes dropping depth charges The planes had been targeting the average of what the subs did But the average was almost never where they were They changed the depth and targeting of the drops to make them much effective Also after investigation they realized the planes needed to be painted in camouflage so the subs couldn t spot them and dive as Roger Salardenne. L'Amour chez les fous, reportage dans les asiles d'aliénés. Illustrations de Pol Ferjac uickly The kill rate dramatically increasedThis started the whole area of operations research Sometimes it was coming Georges Feydeau. Théâtre complet : . 1. Occupe-toi d'Amélie. L'Affaire Edouard. Amour et piano. Fiancés en herbe. Hortense a dit je m'en fous ! Introduction de Marcel Achard up with new technologies but to a large extent it was figuring out how to André Roussin. L'Amour fouou la première surprise, comédie en 4 actes. Bruxelles, Théâtre Royal du Parc, 23 septembre 1955 use current technology better and efficiently Even simple things like the lines to clean mess plates after meals They had 2 buckets for rinsing and 2 for washing But washing took 3 times as long as rinsing so the scientists changed it to 1 tub for rinsing and 3 for washing The lines disappeared Simple example but they were looking for bottlenecks and ways to improve things As one person said they only seemed simple in hindsightTizzard had a falling out with Churchill and Lindemann and ended André Breton. L'Amour fou up being sent to the United States to work with the scientists there He brought something the British invented called a cavitron which made radar much better and decreased the size of the euipment making it possible to add into planes for the first time Tizzard in the US is covered in detail in Tuxedo ParkA lot of the book deals with how difficult it was to get the military leaders to listen to them After the war and being able to look at the data it turned out that if the military leaders hadn t been so egotistical and hardheaded and perhaps Fou d'amour (Eros-presses) understood science statistics and probability better hundreds of ships would not have been lost and tens of thousands of lives would not have been lost You could almost say they should have been tried for war crimes My comment not the book sTwo of the worst offenders were General Harris head of the Army Air Corp and Admiral King who was Commander in Chief Atlantic Fleet King among other things did not like and distrusted the British and refused to have an Brit in charge of any joint operation and generally was against joint operations Both King and Harris would not listen to what the scientists had found out about the most effective way to fight the submarines and in particular how to L'avant scène journal du théâtre use air power to help with thisThey wouldn t at first listen that larger convoys were better than smaller ones The Navy men felt by gut that smaller was better But submarines could only sink so many at one time so got through with a larger convoy Plus the radius increased far less than the area within a convoy so not that many ships were needed to protect a larger convoy freeing Du timide au satyre. la timidité et le trac - l'obsession - la regardelle - l'amour de tête - le bacille et l'amour - la jalousie - l'envie - le sadisme - les fous meurtriers. up ships for other convoys or other dutyHarris felt that bombing the civilian population of Germany would win the war The scientists based on the poorly trained crews and looking at the photos realized that not much was getting hit and that not much damage was being done It made sense to focus on military targets and to divert some of the planes to protecting convoys and killing submarines Harris instead kept sending aviators to their deaths for what was shown after the war to have been for the most part a fruitless effort Harris spent the war fire bombing German cities because he felt that alone would win the war and not even reuire the D Day invasion He also insisted on Foudre suspendue et poison de l'amour fou : acte de foi impardonnable : théatre using the new centimeter wavelength radar in the bombers even though it had been shown that it did little to help accuracy It helped tremendously in hunting U boats So one of Harris s planes got shot down and the Germans found the new device and started working on ways to counteract its effectiveness Churchill and Lindemann became Lord Cherwell partway through the war continued to be both good and bad It was good that Churchill liked scientists and helped push what they were doing but he listened too much to Lindemann and never had a good grasp of naval and antisubmarine tacticsOne Un Amour Fou uestion by Lindemann was helpful It got the scientists doing evaluations which led to Andrinople et Alizarine : Roman à colorier (Les contes de l'amour fou.) uestions and ended J'aime un groom ou L'amour vainqueur (Les contes de l'amour fou.) up with them figuring out how large convoys should be and how many ships were needed to effectively protect them There was also idiocy about bombing the submarine shelters along the French coast at St Nazaire and other French ports This was done even though the leaders had been told the concrete was too thick The few times there was a direct hit it left little pockmarks on the top and was Henri Nanot (1921-1962) un Amour Fou de Liberte useless All the subs had to transit the Bay of Biscay Finally the scientists got the proper flights and ships to scan for them and the submarine kills went Fous de l'amour (les) up dramatically Also because they had to spend time submerged and effort evading the Allies it meant less time they could spend out in the Atlantic hunting Allied shippingMixed into the story was also info about the code breaking efforts that went on and the Enigma machine etc A great book that goes into great and fascinating detail on this is Code Girls Many of the code breakers were women Another good book is The Woman Who Smashed Codes The Americans were behind in this area and because J Edgar Hoover and others liked publicity and had had some screw Fleur et l'Amour fou ups the Brits were leary of sharing any information with them about code breaking especially Enigma and Alan Turing s work This changed as the war went on and there was great collaboration by the end There were lengthy parts in the book about the code breaking which was interesting but adding details wouldn t add much to this reviewThe book pointed out that the German s never L'amour d'un fou used scientists the way the Allies did even though the Allies fought the scientists recommendations in many cases If the Germans had done this from the start of the war the war might have turned out differently or lasted much longerAt the end of the book it pointed out that what was so revolutionary during WWII the creation of Operations Research and Un chouia d'amour fou using science and statistics to solve problems is now so common place in the military and in business the nobody pays it much attention

free download ↠ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Stephen Budiansky

Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U-Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare free read ↠ 6 free download ↠ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Stephen Budiansky Stephen Budiansky ↠ 6 read The exciting history of a small group of British and American scientists who during World War II developed the new field of operational research to turn back the tide of German submarines revolutionizing the way wars are waged and won In March 1941 after a year of unbroken and devastating U boat onslaughts the British War Cabinet decided to try a new strategy in the foundering naval campaign To do so they hired an intensely private bohemian physicist who was also an ardent socialist Patrick Blackett was a former navy officer and future winner of the Nobel Prize; he is little remembered today but h. When I was in grad school the most significant development in the historiography of Modern Britain aside from the whole New Social History stuff that was going on in the 70s was the revelation about UltraWinterbotham s The Ultra Secret came out in 1974 just as I was moving into the PhD program and as my mentor said it would reuire all of World War II history to be re written It didI ve been able to keep up with a lot of that rewriting and when I was teaching Combined Studies I got to do a lecture on The Secret War How Smart People Won World War II I focused mainly on the campaigns in Africa and the Battle of Britain Operation Bodyguard and so forth and one area that I needed reading in has always been the Battle of the Atlantic Blackett s War fills in a lot of that gap but it does even some it crucially important When I read those early books on Ultra and Hut 6 and so on there is left an impression that the scientific community simply slid comfortably into place alongside everyone else who was fighting the war This book makes it clear that that wasn t the caseIn my reading about the war there have been a few people I have consistently found to be in the wrong place at that time This book seems to confirm my suspicions about them about the fact that they seemed to be interested in their own reputations their own narrow interests service related and otherwise and their own positions Now this excludes obvious villains like Doenitz and Raeder on the German side whose concerns were obviously opposed to the AlliesThe first was Bomber Harris who seemed most concerned about knocking down buildings in Germany to leave no two stones standing together His refusal in the first instance to support Air Marshall Dowding during the Battle of Britain is followed up by his refusal to provide long range aircraft to support the anti submarine campaign of the Battle of the AtlanticThen there is Lord Cherwell I first ran into him in The Mare s Nest by David Irving 1964 well before the Hitler s War David Irving when Cherwell in presented as the man who most resisted evidence of the existence of the V weapon projects late in the war Here Cherwell is the nemesis of Blackett and his allies who are seeking to properly use the information coming from Ultra intercepts in the anti submarine campaign and whose main goal seems to be nothing than to maintain his position as Churchill s pet scientistFinally Admiral Ernest King who consistently resisted the use of aircraft and large surface ships to hunt the submarines in the AtlanticThe point is clearly made that these men were not evil or even bad They were simply selfish or closed minded or merely narrow in their views of the problems they were dealing with Blackett s War is a book that needs to be read in order to understand the fundamental problems of getting military services in wartime to work with the most undisciplined minds conceivable How do you get those two differently motivated and organised people to work together How do you get them to deal with first of all the simple problems that throwing them together in a life or death situation raises L'amour fou de zivana unbroken and devastating U boat onslaughts the British War Cabinet decided to try a new strategy in the foundering naval campaign To do so they hired an intensely private bohemian physicist who was also an ardent socialist Patrick Blackett was a former navy officer and future winner of the Nobel Prize; he is little remembered today but h. When I was in grad school the most significant development in the historiography of Modern Britain aside from the whole New Social History stuff that was going on in the 70s was the revelation about UltraWinterbotham s The Ultra Secret came out in 1974 just as I was moving into the PhD program and as my mentor said it would reuire all of World War II history to be re written It didI ve been able to keep La Transe et ses entours : La sorcellerie, l'amour fou, saint Jean de la Croix, etc. up with a lot of that rewriting and when I was teaching Combined Studies I got to do a lecture on The Secret War How Smart People Won World War II I focused mainly on the campaigns in Africa and the Battle of Britain Operation Bodyguard and so forth and one area that I needed reading in has always been the Battle of the Atlantic Blackett s War fills in a lot of that gap but it does even some it crucially important When I read those early books on Ultra and Hut 6 and so on there is left an impression that the scientific community simply slid comfortably into place alongside everyone else who was fighting the war This book makes it clear that that wasn t the caseIn my reading about the war there have been a few people I have consistently found to be in the wrong place at that time This book seems to confirm my suspicions about them about the fact that they seemed to be interested in their own reputations their own narrow interests service related and otherwise and their own positions Now this excludes obvious villains like Doenitz and Raeder on the German side whose concerns were obviously opposed to the AlliesThe first was Bomber Harris who seemed most concerned about knocking down buildings in Germany to leave no two stones standing together His refusal in the first instance to support Air Marshall Dowding during the Battle of Britain is followed Histoire de la Cinémathèque française up by his refusal to provide long range aircraft to support the anti submarine campaign of the Battle of the AtlanticThen there is Lord Cherwell I first ran into him in The Mare s Nest by David Irving 1964 well before the Hitler s War David Irving when Cherwell in presented as the man who most resisted evidence of the existence of the V weapon projects late in the war Here Cherwell is the nemesis of Blackett and his allies who are seeking to properly Du jeu subtil à l'amour fou use the information coming from Ultra intercepts in the anti submarine campaign and whose main goal seems to be nothing than to maintain his position as Churchill s pet scientistFinally Admiral Ernest King who consistently resisted the Trente ans d'amour fou use of aircraft and large surface ships to hunt the submarines in the AtlanticThe point is clearly made that these men were not evil or even bad They were simply selfish or closed minded or merely narrow in their views of the problems they were dealing with Blackett s War is a book that needs to be read in order to Mes recettes magiques pour un amour fou understand the fundamental problems of getting military services in wartime to work with the most L'enfant qui devint fou d'amour/Pauvre laid undisciplined minds conceivable How do you get those two differently motivated and organised people to work together How do you get them to deal with first of all the simple problems that throwing them together in a life or death situation raises

summary Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U-Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare

Blackett's War: The Men Who Defeated the Nazi U-Boats and Brought Science to the Art of Warfare free read ↠ 6 free download ↠ PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB ↠ Stephen Budiansky Stephen Budiansky ↠ 6 read E and his fellow scientists did as much to win the war against Nazi Germany as almost anyone else As director of the World War II antisubmarine effort Blackett used little than simple mathematics and probability theory and a steadfast belief in the utility of science to save the campaign against the U boat Employing these insights in unconventional ways from the washing of mess hall dishes to the color of bomber wings the Allies went on to win essential victories against Hitler’s Germany Here is the story of these civilian intellectuals who helped to change the nature of twentieth century warfar. If You Think You Know Your World War II History and Have Not Read This Book Then You Probably Have Large Gaps in Your KnowledgeThis is one of the books published recently and based on restricted World War II archive information only recently declassified and made available to the public This information has substantially rewritten the history of this period of history I believe the author has done a masterful job of interweaving a number of narratives into an absorbing story of how the skilful of use of analytical minds Britain s scientists tilted the odds of victory in the country s favour Plus the book is filled with interesting facts and analysis as to how and why some of the key decisions that set the course of the war were made and the conseuences of those decisions There is significant book with a lot of information packed into its short 261 pagesThe book contains a biography of Nobel Prize winning physicist Patrick Blackett This man has been largely written out of history However he championed the application of scientific analysis to military strategies and tactics In doing so he founded the discipline of Operations Research Today a core component of any business degree and the nemesis of many students who are mathematically challenged His key message to those in power was that Britain didn t need fancier and expensive complex weapons It just needed to efficiently use what it already had His focus on making decisions based on facts did not always go down well with a military hierarchy who made decisions based of gut feel and did not appreciate feed back on areas where they needed to improveThe British Air Force s fighter command were the initial adopters of the use of civilian scientists to investigate their operation problems I did not realise as the author points out with a uote from Harold MacMillan During the 1930s Harold Macmillan would recall many years later we though of air warfarerather as people think of nuclear warfare today This attitude was based on the theory expounded Italian Giulio Douhet that Nothing man can do on the surface of the earth can interfere with a plane in flight moving in the third dimension Blackett and his colleagues did not accept this defeatist attitude Once invited by Fighter Command to look at the issue they came up with radar and importantly developed the procedures and processes to use it as a force multiplier for Britain s meagre fleet of fighters In the Battle of Britain for control of the air over the country the system worked well and the German bombers found they consistently encountering things the interfered with a plane in flight It was the first time anyone had effectively opposed a German bomber force and caused them to lose this vital conflictThe key focus of the book is the Battle of the North Atlantic where German U boats commanded by the fanatical NAZI Admiral Karl Donitz came very close to cutting the vital sea lines to North America by sinking massive tonnages of British shipping Thus winning the war Following on from the experience of their Fighter colleagues Coastal Command were keen to use scientific analysis in this conflict It uickly became apparent that air patrols were the key to eliminating the U boat threat What I find interesting is that because all the physicists were working on radar and the like the scientists used by Coastal Command where odds and sods such as biologists and psychologists Never the less they made game changing contributions to the battle For example a biologist looked at maintenance procedures that were restricting flights by anti submarine patrol planes The air force had a practice of standing down a suadron which had less than 70% of its planes available for combat The antisubmarine suadrons where often in this situation when 30% or of their planes had been involved in protecting a large convoy returned to base Despite the fact that the majority of the planes in the suadron were still available to fly This practice made sense for fighter suadrons where the fighters attacked enemy bombers as a massed force but not for patrol aircraft which operated alone Removing this restriction for the patrol suadrons doubled the available of anti submarine patrol aircraft and had a dramatic effect on reducing the effectiveness of the German U boatsAnother narrative is the role of civilian mathematicians as code breakers Before the war scientists and mathematicians were not used in this role The code breakers were a cosy collection of old boys from Oxford with classic degrees The change to a scientific approach to decrypting the German messages did not happen easily The resulting success of the mathematical code breakers at Bletchley Park in breaking the German ENIGMA code is widely known However I did not know until reading the book that because of slack radio procedures by the naval radio operators the Germans had successfully broken the British and US naval codes and could read every radio transmission for large periods during the war It was not until scientific analysis of German actions in the last year of the war showed that chance alone could not account for their successes that the US and British Navies were persuaded to change their procedures and increase the security of their cryptsYet a further interesting narrative is the conflict between the British scientific establishment and Winston Churchill and his scatterbrained tame scientist Fredrich Lindemann Lindemann was given the title Lord Cherwell by Churchill However the author makes his opinion on Lindemann uite plain by never refer to him by his title Lindemann never let the facts stand in the way of any scatter brain scheme that he and Churchill dreamed up Blackett and fellow scientists needed to constantly battle to prevent scarce resources being wasted on these folliesPart of the book devoted to the case for strategic bombing This is one argument the facts presented by the British scientific establishment never really won over the proponents for this wasteful and largely ineffective activity The hubris about winning the war by bombing Germany into defeat remained dominant right through to the end of the war Air Vice Marshall Harris and his colleagues at Bomber Command were strong adherents to Douhet s misguided writings on the use of bombing of civilians to cause panic and destroy a country s will to fight However a team of scientist analysed German bombing of the cities of Hull and Birmingham According to JD Bernal one of the scientists in uestion they covered everything down to the number of pints drunk and aspirins bought What they found was In neither town was there any panic Nor had worker productivity suffered The only reduction in industrial production that occurred was the direct result of physical damages to plants Moreover the actual number of casualties inflicted remarkably small given the 717 tons of bombs the Germans dropped on the two towns during the period examined In another study using monkeys to test the effectiveness of bombs the scientists found the poor design made the British bombs only half as damaging as the euivalent German bombs In 1942 the scientists reviewed photographs of the results of bombing raids and calculated that the 2000 tons of bombs that Bomber Command had dropped over German had killed approximately 400 German civilians This was almost the same number of air crew killed in the 728 bombers shot down for the month Despite this evidence of the ineffectiveness of their area bombing strategy the Bomber Barons did not change their bombing practices throughout the warThe author highlights the most tragic result from this misallocation of resources This was the failure to allocate long range four engine bombers to anti submarine patrols over the North Atlantic This resulted in a gap in the middle of the Atlantic where the U boats could operate unhindered Analysis by the scientists showed that 300 long range bombers would be reuired to close this gap Less that a couple of weeks losses over Germany by Bomber Command The issue was not addressed until May 1943 when the army demanded that something must be done about shipping losses otherwise the D Day landings would need to be abandoned Once planes were allocated and the gap closed the amount of shipping lost in the North Atlantic dropped to almost nothing The Battle of the North Atlantic had been won The statistics uoted by the author on the impact this had on the German U boat crews are appalling Over the course of the war 830 U boats took part in operations 784 of them 94 percent were lost Of the 40000 men who served on U boats 26000 were killed and 5000 taken prisoner Despite his role in winning the Battle of the North Atlantic the author states that Blackett felt personally responsible for not pushing harder and influencing the decision makers earlier to allocate long range bomber to close the gap much earlier He believed that the war could have been shorted by at least six months is the North Atlantic air patrol gap had been closed a year earlierThe book concludes with the fact that after the war the scientists largely went back to their classrooms and their labs Attempts to use their expertise in the post war reconstruction did not work well as they were not euipped to handle the randomness of peace time democratic society However one legacy remains Operation Research practices are now a standard part of every business s toolkit Premier amour (Les grands romans de l'amour fou) used little than simple mathematics and probability theory and a steadfast belief in the Désirs fous utility of science to save the campaign against the U boat Employing these insights in TRAITE DE L AMOUR FOU unconventional ways from the washing of mess hall dishes to the color of bomber wings the Allies went on to win essential victories against Hitler’s Germany Here is the story of these civilian intellectuals who helped to change the nature of twentieth century warfar. If You Think You Know Your World War II History and Have Not Read This Book Then You Probably Have Large Gaps in Your KnowledgeThis is one of the books published recently and based on restricted World War II archive information only recently declassified and made available to the public This information has substantially rewritten the history of this period of history I believe the author has done a masterful job of interweaving a number of narratives into an absorbing story of how the skilful of Les fous d'amour au Moyen Age : Orient-Occident use of analytical minds Britain s scientists tilted the odds of victory in the country s favour Plus the book is filled with interesting facts and analysis as to how and why some of the key decisions that set the course of the war were made and the conseuences of those decisions There is significant book with a lot of information packed into its short 261 pagesThe book contains a biography of Nobel Prize winning physicist Patrick Blackett This man has been largely written out of history However he championed the application of scientific analysis to military strategies and tactics In doing so he founded the discipline of Operations Research Today a core component of any business degree and the nemesis of many students who are mathematically challenged His key message to those in power was that Britain didn t need fancier and expensive complex weapons It just needed to efficiently Amours fous use what it already had His focus on making decisions based on facts did not always go down well with a military hierarchy who made decisions based of gut feel and did not appreciate feed back on areas where they needed to improveThe British Air Force s fighter command were the initial adopters of the Saintes familles : Amours fous - Saint amour - Anges du chaos use of civilian scientists to investigate their operation problems I did not realise as the author points out with a Majnûn et Laylâ : L'amour fou (La Bibliothèque arabe) uote from Harold MacMillan During the 1930s Harold Macmillan would recall many years later we though of air warfarerather as people think of nuclear warfare today This attitude was based on the theory expounded Italian Giulio Douhet that Nothing man can do on the surface of the earth can interfere with a plane in flight moving in the third dimension Blackett and his colleagues did not accept this defeatist attitude Once invited by Fighter Command to look at the issue they came Un amour si fort, si fou,,, : Collection : Collection harlequin n° 436 up with radar and importantly developed the procedures and processes to L'or des fous : Vies, amours et mésaventures au pays des Four Corners de Rob Schultheis,Marc Amfreville (Traduction) ( 6 mars 2008 ) use it as a force multiplier for Britain s meagre fleet of fighters In the Battle of Britain for control of the air over the country the system worked well and the German bombers found they consistently encountering things the interfered with a plane in flight It was the first time anyone had effectively opposed a German bomber force and caused them to lose this vital conflictThe key focus of the book is the Battle of the North Atlantic where German U boats commanded by the fanatical NAZI Admiral Karl Donitz came very close to cutting the vital sea lines to North America by sinking massive tonnages of British shipping Thus winning the war Following on from the experience of their Fighter colleagues Coastal Command were keen to L'or des fous : Vies, amours et mésaventures au pays des Four Corners by Rob Schultheis(2008-03-06) use scientific analysis in this conflict It Roger Salardenne. L'Amour chez les fous, reportage dans les asiles d'aliénés. Illustrations de Pol Ferjac uickly became apparent that air patrols were the key to eliminating the U boat threat What I find interesting is that because all the physicists were working on radar and the like the scientists Georges Feydeau. Théâtre complet : . 1. Occupe-toi d'Amélie. L'Affaire Edouard. Amour et piano. Fiancés en herbe. Hortense a dit je m'en fous ! Introduction de Marcel Achard used by Coastal Command where odds and sods such as biologists and psychologists Never the less they made game changing contributions to the battle For example a biologist looked at maintenance procedures that were restricting flights by anti submarine patrol planes The air force had a practice of standing down a suadron which had less than 70% of its planes available for combat The antisubmarine suadrons where often in this situation when 30% or of their planes had been involved in protecting a large convoy returned to base Despite the fact that the majority of the planes in the suadron were still available to fly This practice made sense for fighter suadrons where the fighters attacked enemy bombers as a massed force but not for patrol aircraft which operated alone Removing this restriction for the patrol suadrons doubled the available of anti submarine patrol aircraft and had a dramatic effect on reducing the effectiveness of the German U boatsAnother narrative is the role of civilian mathematicians as code breakers Before the war scientists and mathematicians were not André Roussin. L'Amour fouou la première surprise, comédie en 4 actes. Bruxelles, Théâtre Royal du Parc, 23 septembre 1955 used in this role The code breakers were a cosy collection of old boys from Oxford with classic degrees The change to a scientific approach to decrypting the German messages did not happen easily The resulting success of the mathematical code breakers at Bletchley Park in breaking the German ENIGMA code is widely known However I did not know André Breton. L'Amour fou until reading the book that because of slack radio procedures by the naval radio operators the Germans had successfully broken the British and US naval codes and could read every radio transmission for large periods during the war It was not Fou d'amour (Eros-presses) until scientific analysis of German actions in the last year of the war showed that chance alone could not account for their successes that the US and British Navies were persuaded to change their procedures and increase the security of their cryptsYet a further interesting narrative is the conflict between the British scientific establishment and Winston Churchill and his scatterbrained tame scientist Fredrich Lindemann Lindemann was given the title Lord Cherwell by Churchill However the author makes his opinion on Lindemann L'avant scène journal du théâtre uite plain by never refer to him by his title Lindemann never let the facts stand in the way of any scatter brain scheme that he and Churchill dreamed Du timide au satyre. la timidité et le trac - l'obsession - la regardelle - l'amour de tête - le bacille et l'amour - la jalousie - l'envie - le sadisme - les fous meurtriers. up Blackett and fellow scientists needed to constantly battle to prevent scarce resources being wasted on these folliesPart of the book devoted to the case for strategic bombing This is one argument the facts presented by the British scientific establishment never really won over the proponents for this wasteful and largely ineffective activity The hubris about winning the war by bombing Germany into defeat remained dominant right through to the end of the war Air Vice Marshall Harris and his colleagues at Bomber Command were strong adherents to Douhet s misguided writings on the Foudre suspendue et poison de l'amour fou : acte de foi impardonnable : théatre use of bombing of civilians to cause panic and destroy a country s will to fight However a team of scientist analysed German bombing of the cities of Hull and Birmingham According to JD Bernal one of the scientists in Un Amour Fou uestion they covered everything down to the number of pints drunk and aspirins bought What they found was In neither town was there any panic Nor had worker productivity suffered The only reduction in industrial production that occurred was the direct result of physical damages to plants Moreover the actual number of casualties inflicted remarkably small given the 717 tons of bombs the Germans dropped on the two towns during the period examined In another study Andrinople et Alizarine : Roman à colorier (Les contes de l'amour fou.) using monkeys to test the effectiveness of bombs the scientists found the poor design made the British bombs only half as damaging as the euivalent German bombs In 1942 the scientists reviewed photographs of the results of bombing raids and calculated that the 2000 tons of bombs that Bomber Command had dropped over German had killed approximately 400 German civilians This was almost the same number of air crew killed in the 728 bombers shot down for the month Despite this evidence of the ineffectiveness of their area bombing strategy the Bomber Barons did not change their bombing practices throughout the warThe author highlights the most tragic result from this misallocation of resources This was the failure to allocate long range four engine bombers to anti submarine patrols over the North Atlantic This resulted in a gap in the middle of the Atlantic where the U boats could operate J'aime un groom ou L'amour vainqueur (Les contes de l'amour fou.) unhindered Analysis by the scientists showed that 300 long range bombers would be reuired to close this gap Less that a couple of weeks losses over Germany by Bomber Command The issue was not addressed Henri Nanot (1921-1962) un Amour Fou de Liberte until May 1943 when the army demanded that something must be done about shipping losses otherwise the D Day landings would need to be abandoned Once planes were allocated and the gap closed the amount of shipping lost in the North Atlantic dropped to almost nothing The Battle of the North Atlantic had been won The statistics Fous de l'amour (les) uoted by the author on the impact this had on the German U boat crews are appalling Over the course of the war 830 U boats took part in operations 784 of them 94 percent were lost Of the 40000 men who served on U boats 26000 were killed and 5000 taken prisoner Despite his role in winning the Battle of the North Atlantic the author states that Blackett felt personally responsible for not pushing harder and influencing the decision makers earlier to allocate long range bomber to close the gap much earlier He believed that the war could have been shorted by at least six months is the North Atlantic air patrol gap had been closed a year earlierThe book concludes with the fact that after the war the scientists largely went back to their classrooms and their labs Attempts to Fleur et l'Amour fou use their expertise in the post war reconstruction did not work well as they were not euipped to handle the randomness of peace time democratic society However one legacy remains Operation Research practices are now a standard part of every business s toolkit